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Foam cement is a versatile, low-density cementing system used in many oil-well applications. It is commonly used for low fracture gradient or lost circulation problem wells. The formulation is unique compared to other oil-well fluids because it uses three phases of matter. The solid phase consists of cement and other dry additives. The liquid phase is mix water and any liquid additives. And the gaseous phase is, in most cases, nitrogen (N2) gas.

Adding nitrogen gas to a cement slurry dramatically reduces the density while using the same amount of mix water. Because no extra water is used, foam cement develops sufficient mechanical strength for well-bore application while improving the bonding characteristics. As the temperature increases down hole, the nitrogen gas expands, pushing the foam cement against the formation and casing and creating a stronger bond. Despite the added benefits, expansion also creates challenges for laboratory testing.

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